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NASA Probes Show ‘Alarming’ Water Loss in Middle East

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By Lauren Morello


Parts of the Middle East are losing groundwater reserves at “an alarming rate,” according to a new analysis of NASA satellite data.

From the beginning of 2003 to the end of 2009, portions of Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria that lie within the Tigris and Euphrates river basins shed 117 million acre-feet of water. That’s roughly equivalent to the volume of the Dead Sea.

The Ataturk reservoir on the Euphrates River in Turkey.
Credit: U.S. Department of Agriculture

About one-fifth of that water disappeared during a drought that began in 2007, which decreased snowpack that feeds the rivers and dried out soils. Another 20 percent of the lost water came from surface lakes and reservoirs.

But the bulk of the water loss — about 60 percent — came from aggressive groundwater pumping, said the new study, which was published in the journal Water Resources Research.

That includes 1,000 new groundwater wells the Iraqi government dug between 2007 and 2009, to compensate for water lost when it increased flows from its major reservoir, Qadisiyah, to raise drought-lowered river levels along the Euphrates.

“The region is one that really calls out for attention,” said lead author Jay Famiglietti, a hydrologist at the University of California, Irvine.

The overall rate of freshwater loss from the region during the 7-year study period is one of the highest in the entire world, second only to water loss in India, his study concluded.

“I’m concerned, from a sustainability perspective,” Famiglietti said. “I worry about climate change” — which scientists believe will decrease rainfall in the region — “and population growth, and whether there is going to be enough water to drink and grow food and produce energy.”

Adding to those concerns, researchers said, is the lack of regular, reliable monitoring of water storage in much of the Middle East, and a reluctance to share what little information is available.

“When you’re in a water-stressed region and you share resources across political boundaries, there’s a real reluctance to publish information, to make it freely available,” Famiglietti said.

And there is no legal pressure to do so. Countries in the Tigris and Euphrates basins have not established a system to allocate water rights and jointly manage freshwater flows.

But NASA’s twin GRACE satellites have allowed scientists a clearer view of the region’s water woes than they have been afforded in the past.

The probes — formally named the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment — can detect tiny changes in the Earth’s gravity field caused by changes like groundwater depletion.

“They’re like a scale in the sky,” Famiglietti said of the satellite tandem.

Despite GRACE’s utility, the scientist said he’s hoping to wield an even older tool to help improve water management in the Middle East: diplomacy.

Famiglietti and colleagues were scheduled to leave Saturday for a two-week trip to the region, where they will meet with scientists, water managers and other government officials in several different countries.

“We’re going to present some of these results and talk to water ministers, just to show them what [GRACE] is capable of,” Famiglietti said. “If there’s any interest in Israel, Jordan or Palestine in learning how to use the data, we’re happy to help.”

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Comments

By Chris Squire-UK (Twickenham)
on February 19th, 2013

How much is ‘117 million acre-feet’ in real money? It would be helpful if you would start giving SI equivalents for the quantities cited in articles like this which are likely to be read all around the world which has as you may have heard either never used or abandoned British Imperial units long ago. Even here in good old Blighty the acre is going out of use.

I make 1 acre-foot = 1.7 hectare-metres [but it wouldn’t surprise me to learn tat I’ve overlooked something in the conversion]. So ‘117 million acre-feet’ = 200 million hectare-metres.

Reply to this comment

By Dave (Basking Ridge, NJ 07920)
on February 19th, 2013

I wouldn’t have commented - but you’re way off with the numbers there Chris.
1 acre = 0.405 hectares
1 ft = 0.305 m
So 1 acre-foot = 0.124 hectare-m and 117 million acre-ft = 14.5 million hectare-meters.
Personally, I don’t have a good feel for either of these volume units - so for me the Dead Sea analogy was more helpful.

BTW: It’s often the same with temperature too.  1 C of GW is a bit more than 1 F and many Americans forget or ignore that centigrade is used almost everywhere else and just say degrees.  Oh well.

Reply to this comment

By catman306
on February 19th, 2013

 
1 (acre foot) = 0.123348184 hectare meters (from Google)
so
117 million acre feet = 14,431,737.53 hectare meters

Reply to this comment

By Paul Felix Schott
on March 14th, 2013

Read

Isaiah 11 : 15 - 16

The Lord’s Little Helper
Paul Felix Schott

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