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Lack of Warning on Drought Reflects Forecasting Flaws

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In May, the U.S. Agriculture Department predicted a record corn yield after farmers planted the largest area of corn and soybeans since 1937. Three months later, after a searing drought engulfed a wide swath of the continental U.S., those crops lie in ruin.

Despite all of the resources at forecasters’ disposal, the worst drought to strike the U.S. in nearly 50 years came on largely without warning across the fields of the Midwest and High Plains during late spring and early summer. Between May 1 and July 24, the drought footprint in the lower 48 states expanded from an already high 38 percent to a devastating 64 percent, engulfing more than a dozen states in the process, including nearly the entire corn and soybean growing region. Judging by past droughts, the drought of 2012 will likely cost the U.S. somewhere on the order of tens of billions of dollars.

The lack of advanced warning made the drought an especially harsh blow to farmers and ranchers who had been expecting a bumper year. Instead of a season of plenty, what farmers got was a “flash drought,” brought on by a stubborn “heat dome” of High Pressure and its brutally hot days and record warm nights. The 1-2 punch of the heat and lack of rainfall shriveled crops, baked fish in shrunken ponds and rivers, and forced ranchers to sell their cattle.

Despite major advances in seasonal climate forecasting during the past several decades, the failure to predict the scope and severity of the 2012 drought demonstrates that such forecasts are still rife with uncertainty, as forecasters must wrestle with the significant blind spots in their own understanding of the climate system and computer model simulations of that system.

Researchers and forecasters say that in addition to the uncertainties involved with their current tools and techniques, a lack of investment is also hobbling efforts to improve high-impact seasonal-to-yearly climate forecasts, such as the seasonal drought outlooks on which farmers and many others rely.

The three-month seasonal drought outlook, which is revised monthly, is the main drought forecasting tool produced by the federal government. It wasn’t until June 21 that an outlook showed drought conditions were likely to persist and expand in the Midwest and High Plains, and by that time, the country was rapidly heating up and drying out, destined to record its hottest month on record in July.

Prior to that — during the critical planting time when farmers were making key decisions about how to utilize their land during the growing season — the drought outlooks showed no hint of an impending widespread drought, let alone one of the top 10 worst droughts on record.

David Miskus, who prepares the drought outlooks for NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center, said that once drought conditions have set in, forecasters have a solid track record of predicting how such conditions will evolve. Accurately anticipating drought onset, though, is a much trickier problem.

“We don’t have much skill in forecasting drought development,” he said. One reason for this, scientists say, is that the computer models forecasters use don’t accurately capture the ways that land surface conditions interact with the atmosphere. The models tend to have more skill in predicting drought development or tendency out to a few weeks in advance, but beyond that, they have major limitations.

Temperature departures from average during July 2012.
Credit: NOAA/NCDC

According to Tony Busalacchi, the director of the University of Maryland’s Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, the severity and magnitude of the drought “caught everybody by surprise.”

“Our ability to predict drought on seasonal timescales is not very good,” Busalacchi said.

Climate forecasters and researchers said that there were signs that the summer of 2012 could feature more widespread drought conditions, since water temperatures in a large part of the Pacific Ocean were cooler than average, and Atlantic water temperatures were warmer than average. Such an arrangement has been linked to major droughts in the past because of the way it influences the formation and movement of weather systems across the U.S. Such a sea surface temperature pattern was in place during a severe drought in 1988, for example.

However, just because this sea surface temperature pattern is in place doesn’t guarantee drought development.

Busalacchi said the sea surface temperature pattern “would suggest drought,” but that forecasters completely missed the scale and scope of the disaster that has been unfolding during the past few months.

Klaus Wolter, a researcher at NOAA’s Earth Systems Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colo., said he was one of several scientists who warned of drought problems this summer, although he too was surprised by the “sharpness” and expansiveness of the drought conditions. “The general idea that we would be looking at drought problems this year in a greater acreage, I certainly put that out and I wasn’t the only one,” Wolter said.

“Some of this to me was clearly predictable, but that it would get this bad in the Midwest? That was something that wasn’t on the radar until very late.”

President Obama and Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack visiting a farm in Iowa to look at the damaged crops.
Credit: USDA.

Wolter said it was appropriate for the Climate Prediction Center to be cautious about predicting a major drought, since it was likely that such a forecast would be inaccurate, considering the odds of such extreme events. The Midwest had not seen a major drought in recent years and flooding has been a more frequent concern.

One of the reasons why forecasters missed this event may be due to flaws in the computer models they use to simulate short-to-medium term weather and climate conditions. Right now, the models don’t clearly capture the details of how land surface features interact with the atmosphere, and such feedbacks may play a key role in the development of drought conditions.

For example, drier-than-average conditions during the spring can foreshadow drought development during the summer, in part because there is less moisture available to enter the atmosphere in such regions.

According to Eric Wood, a professor at Princeton University who is researching ways to improve drought predictions, the state-of-the-art seasonal forecast models tend to show drought conditions out to a couple of weeks in advance, but then revert back to showing normal precipitation patterns after that. This tendency limits forecasters’ skill in predicting drought conditions a month or more ahead of time.

“What happens is that the models are not able to have very much skill out past a few weeks when it comes to precipitation. They’re better on temperature, but not on precipitation,” Wood said. His research group at Princeton is working to understand why the models perform so poorly with long-range precipitation outlooks, and he said the primary suspect at this point is the failure to accurately account for interactions between the land and atmosphere.

A Question of Resources

In today’s budget-constrained environment, funds for seasonal climate forecasting are squaring off against other priorities within agencies such as NOAA, which also supports weather research and long-range climate change studies.

Improving seasonal-to-yearly climate forecasts could have significant societal benefits. “There are huge impacts on the economy when looking at the seasonal [time]scales,” Wood said.

For example, if farmers and ranchers had advanced notice of the current drought event, perhaps they could have minimized their economic losses by planting less during the spring, and purchasing crop insurance.

However, the main office within NOAA that funds climate research and applications, known as the Climate Program Office, had its budget slashed by 30 percent last year. It is focusing the majority of its cuts on research programs, including seasonal climate forecasting research, while trying to maintain weather and climate observation networks and existing programs, including the National Integrated Drought Information System.

“More resources could be going to the seasonal to interannual [prediction] problem,” said Lisa Goddard, the director of the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University. Goddard said it is often difficult to show forecasting improvements as well as the need for further refinement of seasonal predictions, in part because of the way that outlooks are presented to the public and government officials. Another problem is the perception that seasonal-to-yearly forecasts are already as accurate as they are going to get, and that short-term weather and long-term global warming should get the lion’s share of funds.

“It is true that there are a number of individuals in the government that think the seasonal prediction problem is done, and I think that’s unfortunate,” she said.

Busalacchi said it’s important that forecasters perform a post-mortem assessment of what went wrong with this year’s drought outlook to find the important factors they failed to pick up on, and learn how to improve forecasts of the next drought event. Unfortunately, he said, it’s not clear that the funding is available for such studies, nor is there a clear and consistent push for such work from NOAA’s leadership.

For farmers and ranchers across the heartland of the U.S., that post-mortem will come far too late, and at far too high of a cost. As the summer nears an end, their hopes now rest with the prospect for drought-busting rains during the cooler months ahead. And the newest seasonal drought outlook, issued on Thursday, does show improving conditions in parts of the Ohio Valley and Southwest, but persistent drought through the end of November in the High Plains and Mississippi River Valley.

Then again, based on its recent track record, that drought outlook should be taken with a grain of salt.

Comments

By G Ennis (Toronto, Ontario)
on August 17th, 2012

I could not help but observe the irony that the states most impacted by the drought are the ones that will enthusiastically be voting for a political party which is happy to slash spending on programs that might help the country adapt to climate change or at least have some warning about the onset of extreme climate events.

Of course many of the red states both from a drought and political perspective can from an economic perspective be described as “free riders” that is much of the cost of failing to address drought are being shifted to the general taxpayer particularly those taxpayers that are living in “bluer” states both from a drought and political perspective. This is done through programs such as crop insurance etc.

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By M Tucker
on August 17th, 2012

Drought in America’s breadbasket this year, drought in Russia last year threatened the world food supply. But it could be devastating floods and torrential rains that reduce a seasons harvest. These chaotic weather extremes from human caused climate change reduce the food available to feed the world and that coupled with the near zero growth in crop yields for the past 10 or more years is already impacting humans everywhere. It is not as noticeable in the wealthy western nations but it is already impacting nutrition in at least one large BRIC nation, India. Daily caloric intake is falling as world temperatures are raising. If India is an emerging nation on par with China, as many claim, it is a nation emerging with serious developmental problems, birth defects if you will. Jeremy Grantham, a very well respected financier, has been writing about this for years in his quarterly newsletters. Lester Brown has been warning of the world food crisis and climate change. Bill McKibben has been traveling the country talking about the threat. Climate Central has been publishing posts about the crisis. All have published books about the threat while the news media only mentions the weather and almost never mentions the influence of human caused climate change that results from the relentless pumping of CO2 waste from burning fossil fuels into the atmosphere. Farmers depend on a reasonable predictability in the weather. The rest of civilization depends on framers. I sure hope some kind of forecasting can be developed so agriculture will have a decent warning of what to expect because our leaders are not leading on this issue and one major political party is infamous for denying that a climate problem exists. You cannot will the battle without a leader.

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By Chet (Oakland, Ca. 94611)
on December 24th, 2013

First of all, global warming has been proven to be a crock of cr*p! So that did not work, now they call it “Climate Change”.  If you research from the history of the the earth you see there have been cooling treads, droughts, warming trends etc.  Any third grader can tell you this. And to top it off this occurred before the industrial revolution!!  Volcanoes can produce enough air particulate and Co2 from one eruption to account for several years of “man made” stuff in the air!!

Come on… let’s get over it!!  Al Gore and his group,  including the Dear Leader are scamming us and laughing all the way to the bank!!  When was in grammar school in the 60’s they cried “Global Cooling”... remember that?? And how did that workout???

Saving the best for last: (And driving the Atheist’s NUTS)

God is in control of our weather!!

PS: Fifty bucks this does’t get posted!!     

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By an15dy
on August 18th, 2012

  predicting drought is as easy as walking out in a field on the winter solstice raising a stick with a burning ember on the far end of it and pointing it east, west, south, and north while watching which way the breeze blows.. one also takes note of the temperature at the time of the breeze _warm or cool_ and the ambient conditions, and the intensity of the sun.  Every Ancient Mayan knows that…  unfortunately we have long since destroyed their culture and the culture of the native Americans elsewhere and replaced them with random technology that only has one thing in mind “the profit margin”  when it comes to nature money doesn’t mean a thing..   

what is odd is there was no “global warming” until it happened to us. When Russian was in a drought there was no global warming,  when Europe was in a drought there was no global warming.  africa and so on..  so if there is no global warming why it is wandering hither and thither across the globe…  reality it doesn’t exist the sun and the stars determine our weather patterns and in doing so determine the output of our crops. again ask any ancient mayan or native american for that matter… they learned it the hard way just like we will.

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By Mike (Atlanta, GA 30339)
on August 21st, 2012

We are certainly not advancing long range forecasting at the rate we would like to, but even if we did accurately predict the drought, what could have been done to mitigate the crop losses? Maybe the issue isn’t better forecasting, but better management of our water resources. Why haven’t we taken a long hard look at creating a network of desalination plants and reservoirs to help solve our drought, hydro-electric, and flood protection problems? Imagine a farm bill without subsidies for crop insurance to offset flood and drought losses. Imagine issuing hydro-electric permits instead of off shore drilling permits. Imagine not raping the Colorado River anymore. Novel idea.

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By len holliday (belton s.c. 29627)
on August 25th, 2012

Obama has slashed spending for NOAA as a whole at a time when the U.S. has been faced with more deadly Severe Weather such as Joplin, MO. And the whole world is talking about Global Warming. It seems if we are doing the right thing for our citizens we would be increasing spending in these area so we could prove if Global Warming is real or not and if so did man play a part in the cause. The folks in Joplin would sure have been better off today had the lead time on the Tornado Warning would have been longer. Also, NOAA has a great program with Weather Radios that get the warnings into the hands of the public so they will know that all types of Severe Weather is on the way. Noaa is of great value to the American people. They just need more money so they can run it well! Thanks! Len Holliday Lead Forecaster with firsthandweather.com

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By roloro1557 (Midwest plains)
on March 22nd, 2013

I don’t want to point out the obvious, but in my 40 years of observation, high pressure domes parking over this area are nothing new or unusual. While they don’t happen every year they do happen frequently. Just an observation.

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