News Section
Stories from Climate Central's Science Journalists and Content Partners

Earthworms Increase Soils’ Greenhouse Gas Emissions

By Lauren Morello

Most earthworms may be tiny, but a new study suggests their impact on the climate could be mighty.

Researchers had long assumed the creepy crawlers help store carbon in soils by consuming fallen leaves and other decaying plant matter, which they deposit in soil in their cast, or droppings. But newer studies suggest the worms may actually increase soils' output of two key greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.

A new meta-analysis, published Sunday in the journal Nature Climate Change, found that the presence of earthworms appears to increase soils' output of CO2 by 33 percent and of nitrous oxide by 42 percent.

A bowl of exotic European earthworms species federal scientists recently found in National Wildlife Refuge sites throughout the Upper Midwest.
Credit: Lindsey Shartell/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

"We've known for only a couple of years that they can really increase nitrous oxide emissions, but it was not really clear how much," said study co-author Jan-Willem van Groenigen of Wageningen University in the Netherlands, whose work is based on a review of 57 previously published analyses.

As for claims that the worms help store carbon in soils, van Groenigen said that traditional argument has always seemed suspect to him.

"It's strange to claim on the one hand that earthworms are good for soil fertility by decomposing organic matter in soil, and on the other hand that they increase organic matter in soil," he said.

Van Groenigen was quick to note that the new study is not the last word on the earthworm question. Scientists, who often refer to earthworms as "ecosystem engineers" in recognition of the role they play in churning soil and improving its drainage, have been slow to understand the little organisms' role in the carbon cycle.

The current crop of studies suggest that earthworms that live in the upper layer of soil eat leaves, crop residues and other plant matter. When they excrete the remains, their droppings provide a feast for soil microbes that emit nitrous oxide. Their burrowing and churning also mixes plant matter into the dirt, where it decays and produces carbon dioxide.

But most of those studies were conducted over short periods of time, perhaps a few weeks, and many of them took place in laboratory conditions rather than in real-life fields and forests, van Groenigen said, which may distort the results. There are hints that over longer periods, CO2 emissions from worm-ridden soils may decrease while nitrous oxide emissions may rise.

Still, experts who were not involved in the new study said it was a solid analysis — though limited by the narrow scope of existing research on earthworms' role in the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Earthworms "probably don't get enough attention," said Peter Groffman, an ecosystem ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies. "They play a super-important role in climate change. There's all this carbon in soil, and there's a big flux of greenhouse gases from soil to the atmosphere. And those fluxes are very fundamentally affected by things like earthworms, millipedes and mites that live in the soil."

Though earthworms are a familiar and friendly presence in many gardens, fields and yards, many of the species found in the northeastern U.S., where Groffman works, are invasive foreign species. The region's native earthworms were wiped out thousands of years ago, during the last ice age, as glaciers formed, advanced and retreated in the Northeast, leaving a landscape devoid of the soil worms need to thrive.

Over time, that soil returned, and so did earthworms: European species began hitching rides to North America hundreds of years ago with the first colonists. More recently, Asian species have made the journey.

Groffman, who has studied invading earthworms' transformation of Northeast forests since the 1990s, said his own research bears out the new study's main conclusions.

"Their point is right," he said. "Earthworms have really big effects on carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil, and potentially big effects on greenhouse gases, and the distribution of earthworms is changing."

One big question, he said, is how a landscape invaded by earthworms will eventually adapt to their presence, and whether that will increase or decrease emissions of heat-trapping gases.

Josef Gorres, a soil scientist at the University of Vermont, said his own long-term field studies suggest that, at least in the Northeast, native plants grow better -- and presumably store more carbon -- when earthworms haven't invaded a landscape.

"There are sugar maple forests we've studied, one with this very strange Asian earthworm that has really reduced plant life on the forest floor to nothing," he said. "What the Dutch workers are saying in their paper is right on, if you look at the literature that is available."

Related Content 
Plants and Climate Change: It's Not That Simple  
Farming New Land Can Release Lots of CO2 Into the Atmosphere 
Dry-Soil Phenomenon Triggers More Storms, Not Less


By Nichol Brummer (Utrecht)
on February 3rd, 2013

If worms are so important .. shouldn’t we wonder about molls, and how they help to keep worms in check? And how humanity is usually rather incompatible with molls? Should we start being more friendly to molls?

Reply to this comment

By David Banks (Colorado Springs/CO/80924)
on February 4th, 2013

So we need to kill cows,horses, goats, earthworms, and ourselves to save the world.

We are on the backside of solar cycle 24 and 25 will be even weaker.  It is getting colder and nobody in Europe and most of Asia needs me to tell them this. 

Read a story about the HMS Investigator which was lost in the Arctic in 1850 off Banks Island.  It was found in shallow water right offshore a few years back.  It took an ice breaker and a reinforced hulled research ship to get to the wreck.  How did the rickety old ship get there in 1850,  hint no ice.  The crew also lived on the island for 2 years until they were rescued.

Reply to this comment

By Kyle (Lenhartsville, PA 19534)
on April 1st, 2013

This is just black propaganda produced by the authoritarians that control the world. Let’s not worry about the worms, the cattle, and the horses, and start looking at what these people are spraying in our skies, and putting in our food and water supplies. Hell Obama just signed the Monsanto protection act for gods sake…

Reply to this comment

By Jerry Scholder (Front Royal VA. 22630)
on June 11th, 2013

What ridiculous poppycock this article is….just goes to prove that so called scientists are their worst enemy.  Clearly, this article is meant to get attention for it’s ridiculous conclusions.  Not one place was the term “humic substances” referred to—the most important organic matter and the most abundant on earth.  The earthworm is the only mobile composting unit in the world and it is the only animal that produces this humic substance which locks in these greenhouse gases so that they can’t escape into the atmosphere.  No enzyme on earth can destroy these humic substances.  This type of assertion was made years ago, and was debunked by Dr. Clive Ewards at the time. 

Want more on this subject:  go to

Reply to this comment

Name (required):
Email (required):
Enter the word "climate" in the box below:

[+] View our comment guidelines.

Please note: Comment moderation is enabled. Your comment will not appear until reviewed by Climate Central staff. Thank you for your patience.